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The use of the Arctic Ocean for exploration and transportation is increasing, as is disagreement regarding the rights of nations encircling it - Canada, Finland, Denmark (Greenland), Russia, and the United States. These nations are both making their own sovereign claims and contesting the claims of others through bilateral negotiations and use of international tribunals. Despite its attempts to define boundaries and mediate disputes, these disputes and bilateral treaties raise questions about whether the United Nations has yet provided an international legal regime entirely satisfying to the Arctic states. Meanwhile, countries in the region pursue increasingly complex and ambitious scientific and development agendas in the Arctic.
Reprinted by permission of The Northern Mariner/le marin du nord, XX No. 1, (January 2010), 71-83.
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