HIPAA Privacy and Security Audits Begin: Enforcement Measures May Follow
The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has begun the pilot phase of HIPAA privacy and security audits of health care providers, health insurers and health care clearinghouses (“covered entities”) to assess HIPAA compliance efforts. Up to 150 covered entities will be subject to the initial audits, to be conducted by KPMG, LLP, the OCR audit contractor. Once notified in writing that the entity has been selected for any audit, entities will be required to provide requested information to KPMG, allow an on-site visit, and respond to the auditor’s initial report. Although the OCR says that audits are primarily a “compliance improvement activity,” the OCR may take further action if the audit uncovers serious HIPAA compliance issues. In light of recent comments made by the top OCR official regarding the need for more enforcement sanctions, all covered entities and their business associates should review their HIPAA privacy and security practices to ensure compliance with HIPAA standards.
The HIPAA privacy and security audits were mandated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 which requires periodic audits to ensure covered entities and business associates comply with the HIPAA privacy and security rules as well as the breach notification standards. Although covered entities will be the focus of initial audits, business associates – organizations that provide services on behalf of covered entities and who as a result have access to protected health information (PHI) – will be included in future audits. The pilot audits began in November 2011 and will conclude by December 2012. The audits are designed to examine mechanisms for compliance, identify best practices and discover risks and vulnerabilities that may not be discovered through OCR’s complaint investigations. However, it is important to note that although OCR emphasizes that these audits will aid in overall HIPAA compliance, it leaves open the door to impose sanctions on those entities that have serious HIPAA compliance problems.
By law, covered entities and business associates are required to cooperate with auditors. Those selected for an audit will first receive written notification and will be asked to provide documentation of their privacy and security compliance efforts. In the pilot phase, every audit will include an on-site visit and result in an audit report. During the on-site visit, auditors will interview key personnel and observe processes and operations to determine compliance. A draft audit report will be prepared and the covered entity will have the opportunity to discuss concerns and describe corrective actions implemented to address concerns identified by auditors. The final report will be submitted to OCR, which may take further action, if compliance issues are serious.
Once a covered entity receives notification that it has been selected for an audit, it will have 10 business days to provide the requested information. It is expected that covered entities will receive between 30 and 90 days advance notice of the on-site visit. On-site visits are expected to last between 3 and 10 business days, depending upon the covered entity’s complexity and the auditor’s need to access materials and staff. After fieldwork is completed, the covered entity will receive a draft report and will have 10 business days to provide a response and provide a plan to address any compliance issues uncovered. The auditor (KPMG) will then have 30 business days to submit the final audit report to OCR.
Although OCR claims it will use the audits to determine overall compliance with the HIPAA privacy and security rules and uncover best practices, it reserves the right to take enforcement action against covered entities for serious HIPAA issues. This is especially important to remember, considering the recent comments by the head of OCR, Leon Rodriguez, who told the Detroit Free Press earlier this month that due to the rise in data breaches over the past year, it is time to crack down on security lapses. “Enforcement promotes compliance,” according to Rodriquez. All covered entities and business associates should therefore review their privacy and security policies and practices and be prepared for an audit. While the pilot audits are initially limited to 150, the audit program will expand in future years and will become a standard feature that covered entities and business associates will have to contend with.
For more information on HIPAA, please contact one of the following Haynes and Boone attorneys.